Jinnah wanted partition on the basis of Muslims and non–Muslims

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The Speeches of Sir Mohammed Zafrullah in the Security Council on the Kashmir issue contained little that might enlighten the world powers and add to their knowledge of facts. The lengthy harangue was full of invectives and threats, and did little credit to the personality of one who had the privilege and honour of being a judge of the world court. It might be that the exhibition of emotion was deliberate because Pakistan’s case on Kashmir cannot be pleaded on the basis of reason and arguments. The only argument that Pakistan earlier put forward was that the majority of the people in Kashmir being Muslims, the state should being to Pakistan. It deceived those who had thought India was partitioned on the basis of Muslims and non–Muslims and that there were no Muslims in the Indian Union. If it were so there would not have been a single Muslim in India or a single Hindu in Pakistan. It is true, that Jinnah wanted partition on that basis.

He might have succeeded in getting Pakistan, but not on the basis on which it was conceived. Pakistan’s insistence now has shifted from its claim on Kashmir on the basis of religion to that of the right of self–determination to be given to the people of Kashmir. Without going into the question of the reasonability and necessity of such a right it can be obviously stated that Pakistan has no locus standi in the matter. What relationship should exist between the people of India and how it should be determined is a decision which India alone in her sovereign right can and has to take. Interference by any other power cannot be tolerated. Pakistan cannot also justify its aggression on Kashmir on that count. Pakistan might have failed to create any impression, but events preceding and following the Kashmir debate require a rethinking on the part of the World powers and the people in India.

The strongest point in favour of Pakistan had been the support and sympathy that it had been receiving from the Western democracies. But this strength of Pakistan has not helped her, for Soviet Russia as a reaction had thought it fit to back India. Last time it was Russia’s veto that foiled Pakistan’s conspiracy for stationing UN forces in Kashmir. This time, too, the Soviet delegate has unequivocally supported India’s stand. Pakistan being a military ally of the West, their natural sympathies is with that country and irrespective of the merits of the case India does not get the just support that it should get from powers that claim to be the champions of the free world wedded to democracy and justice. Their personal prejudice against Sri V.K. Krishna Menon, who had always represented us at the UN, has also been successfully exploited by Pakistan to defeat India’s just cause. Thus Kashmir has so far been unnecessarily dragged into the cold war between the two power blocs.

It however seems that the Western democracies had realised that this sort of treatment of the Kashmir issue would only alienate the sympathies of the people of India. India’s support by Soviet Russia, whatever her motives are, can be exploited by the Communists in the country and the people of India made to feel that in whole world their only friend is Soviet Russia and the Western democracies are out to act against India’s interests. It is on this account perhaps that the Western powers advised Pakistan to refrain from reopening the issue in the Security Council. But Pakistan did not heed their counsel. Evidently their confidence in Pakistan was misplaced.

Pakistan has not only paid scant respect to the saner advice of her allies but with a desire to black mail, entered into a conspiracy with communist China for negotiating an agreement in respect of the border between sinking and part of Kashmir under her occupation. That a proposal for starting such negotiations as made by Communist China was known months ago. Pakistan, however, had not accepted the proposals then. But just when the Kashmir debate in the Security Council started, Pakistan made an official announcement accepting this proposal. Evidently it was a threat to the Western World that Pakistan would join hands with Communist China if they failed her in the matter of grabbing Kashmir.

It may be recalled that earlier too when Suhrawardy was Pakistan’s Prime Minister, he tried to seek support from China on the Kashmir issue. But then relations between India and China at that time were different. Things have, however, changed now. There is every probability of China and Pakistan both joining together in invade Kashmir and divide the spoils. For it is not the official announcement alone that is indicative. China on its part has seemed to oblige Pakistan by its latest protest note threatening India with armed action if she is not vacating some of the checkposts in Ladakh. The whole thing cannot be dismissed as coincidence. The fact is that China and Pakistan have both acted in liaison and intend to browbeat India.

With the same end in view Pakistan has also tried to give a practical indication of what the threat of Sir Mohammad Zafrullah of disturbing the peace of the whole region would be like, by organising riots in the two Bengalis. It is plain that riots in Rajashahi and Dacca were not results of any reaction of an agitated people, but parts of a conspiracy hatched at high level. The Pak president and the East Bengal Governor made inflammatory speeches and incited the people against Hindus. Exaggerated and false reports of the Malda incidents were published. And now it is known that there was a Pakistani hand behind some of the tragic happenings of Malda too. The manner in which the Pak Deputy High Commissioner behaved is not only objectionable but suspicious. It seems that the Pakistani authorities were out to create some trouble in India to provide and excuse for starting the well–planned program against Hindus in East Bengal. An uncalled for protest demonstration against Manohar Kahanivan was organised in Calcutta. It resulted in some aggressive acts by the demonstrators. But the authorities in Calcutta were cautious and controlled it. But in Malda it seems that Pakistani elements were able to create trouble by instigating some simple tribal people to retaliate in defence of the honour of their women folk. The truth is that the Hindus here suffered equally, if not more. But the Pakistani press gave a distorted version of the whole incident only to serve their nefarious designs.

And now the most wonderful things are that Pakistan Government is reported to have instituted an enquiry against our Deputy High Commissioner at Dacca for his alleged communal activities at Rajasthi. All this is because the press in India has exposed the undiplomat–like activities of the Pak Deputy High Commissioner at Calcutta.

We have also the news of Naga Hostiles entering Pakistan to meet Phizo expected to reach Dacca. While on one hand Pakistan had manoeuvred their entry, on the other, she has protested against this act.

All this shows to what length Pakistan and Communist China can go. Despite their alliances with the different power blocs, in the international political scene, both of them can, and have joined against India. As things are, it is clear the USA will not be able to exercise any restraint on Pakistan. Similarly Soviet Russia many also fail. Apprehensions of India that military aid given to Pakistan instead of being used against a Communist country may be used to further aggressive designs against a democratic India have proved correct. It is time that the Western powers give second thought to their policy of arming Pakistan.

In India this alliance will not surprise those who had seen since 1947 the Communist Pain of India providing asylum platform to the entire fanatic Muslim Leaguers. The conspiracy between the Communist and the Communalists has not become so very patent. The extra attention paid to the Muslim Communal elements needs no explanation now. Whether it is Jabalpur or Bhopal, the Communists have always been in the vanguard of the Communal trouble. It is a widely known fact that the Communist MLA who visited Malda was hand in glove with the Muslim trouble–shooters in the area. The writings on the wall are clear. If these events and misdoings of the Pak authorities and Pak elements, together with the aggressive acts of the Communist China and their henchmen in India could awaken democratic forces throughout to a sense of realism and urgency, the Kashmir debate will surely make us wiser. That alone will provide the necessary will and strength to back the determination of the people to defend India’s sovereignty and maintain democratic form and freedom.
(Political Diary-Organiser, 14 May, 1962)